Ventilated facades were named after a ventilated layer or a layer of air between the insulating material and the outer, decorative layer. Due to thermal differences, natural increasing air flow is created, which improves the thermal insulation of the building. During the summer, it guarantees the efficient and natural removal of heat accumulated in the facade by solar heating.
The basic elements of ventilated façade and their functions:
The supporting substructure is mechanically fastened to the supporting wall of the facade. The role of the substructure is to carry an exterior, facade lining and transmit the load created by the wind on the supporting structure. It can be made of aluminium or stainless steel.
The stone wool insulation material – the thermal insulation material in the ventilated facade system must be sufficiently firm and connected in order to prevent the tearing and disseminating of the insulating material due to the higher air flow in the ventilated layer. Also, the higher density of the insulating material prevents the infiltration of cold air into the material itself. The stone wool panels are placed closely next to each other, with gap between the plates. The panels are mechanically fastened to achieve the effect of pressing the panels onto the supporting wall. Specially designed anchors for ventilated facades are used for the stone wool fixing .
The panels can be additionally laminated with a glass fleece (laminated side of the panels faces the ventilated layer) in black or white depending on the desired visual effect. In this way, the following characteristics are improved:
– longitudinal air resistance: the glass fleece protects the surface of the panel from possible increased air flow within the air layer
– panel hydrophobicity: in this way, stone wool panels are additionally protected from direct weather influences, due to possible larger joints between the plates of the outer lining, such as rain, snow …
Ventilated layer – the size of the ventilated layer is minimum 3 cm. The role of this layer is to drain the diffuser moisture from the facility (from the inner, warmer space to an outer, cooler environment – that does not require the installation of a steam barrier), as well as the water that may have penetrated through the outer coating. In the summer, it prevents the penetration of heat into the interior of the building (reduces heating of the base wall mass) and in the winter represents an additional thermal insulator.
Exterior, decorative layer – this layer defines the visual appearance of the facility and can be of: marble, stone, alucobond, ceramics, fundermax … The role of this layer is to protect against sun, rain and other atmospheric influences. Also, this layer receives and transmits the load produced by the wind to the supporting substructure.